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Healthcare Communications




The normal reaction of living tissue to injury



Inflammation - Cardinal Signs

* Calor (heat)
* Rubor (redness)
* Tumor (swelling)
* Dolor (pain)
* Functio laesio (loss of function)

Causes of Inflammation

1) Mechanical : trauma (sports injuries, road accidents) : surgery (post operatively)
2) Physical : heat (burns), cold, radiation, electricity, pressure
3) Chemicals : strong acids, alkalis, drugs
4) Infections : bacteria, viruses, fungi, animal parasites


Changes in Inflammation 

* Vascular changes
- Vasodilation
- Capillary permeability
* Cellular changes
- Chemotaxis
- Diapedesis
- Phagocytosis



Relationship of Vascular Changes to Cardinal Signs of Inflammation



Adverse Consequences of Inflammation



Anti-inflammatory Drugs

* Steroidal
- Corticosteroids, liberated by adrenal cortex & derivatives eg., hydrocortisone, prednisolone, dexamethasone, betamethasone
* Non-Steroidal
- Non-Steroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) eg., aspirin, ibuprofen, oxyphenbutazone, piroxicam, diclofenac, mefenamic acid



Actions of Anti-inflammatory Drugs



Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS)

COX-1 & COX-2 inhibitors :
Aspirin, ibuprofen, oxyphenabutazone, piroxicam, diclofenac, mefenamic acid
Selective COX-2 inhibitors :
Meloxicam, celecoxib, refecoxib



NSAIDS - Actions

a) Anti-inflammatory effect : Inhibits prostaglandin synthesis

b) Analgesic action : Increases threshold for pain perception

c) Antipyretic effect : Restores the balance between heat production & heat loss to normal

d) Other effects :
Antiplatelet effect :- Prevention platelet adhesion & aggregation useful in prevention MI, stroke
Uricosunic effect :- Urinary excretion of urates useful in gout