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Healthcare Communications

Cloxacillin

 

Cloxacillin

Beta Lactamase:
- Enzyme produced by bacteria that inactivates betalactam antibiotics, including penicillins
- Staph. aureus, E. coli, H. influenza, Neisseriae and many other bacteria produce beta-lactamase

The need
A beta-lactamase stable penicillin

 

 

Cloxacillin

- Beta-lactamase stable penicillin
- Drug of choice for staphycococcal infection

 

Antibacterial Activity

- Narrow spectrum coverage includes Staph. aureus
- Bactericidal activity against Staph. aureus combined with stability against staphylococcal beta-lactamases
- Like other penicillins, bactericidal action by inhibition of bactericidal cell wall synthesis

 

Pharmacokinetics

- Absorbed orally, peak levels in 1 hour
- Concentrations persist for 4 - 6 hours
- Distributed throughout the body
- Some metabolism occurs in liver
- Excreted in urine, stools
- Crosses placental barrier and excreted in breast milk

 

Dosage and Administration

- Usual adult dose : 250 mg - 1 gm 6 hourly
- Children : 50 - 100 mg / Kg / day Administered orally, IM, IV

Tolerability

- Well tolerated
- Allergic reactions may occur
- Safe in pregnancy, lactation, children
- Contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to
penicillins

 

Uses

- Skin & Soft Tissue infections : eg., surgical wounds, cellulitis, furunculosis, carbuncles, abscesses, pyoderma
- Bone and Joint Infections : eg., Osteomyelitis, septic arthritis
- Staph. aureus is the main culprit in acute osteomyeletis, and may be involved in chronic cases too
- Staphylococci are an important cause of septic arthritis
- Other Staphylococcal Infections : eg., mastitis, breast abscess, bacteraemia, RTI and ENT infections

 

 

Salient Features

- Specific anti-staphylococcal antibiotic
- Bactericidal activity against Staph. aureus and stability against staphylococcal beta-lactamases
- Effective in skin & soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections, surgical infections, staphylococcal infections involving various organs
- Well tolerated
- Safe in pregnancy, lactation, children
- Administered orally, IM, IV